gerd and respiratory system

Extraesophageal reflux disease (EERD) represents a wide spectrum of manifestations mainly related with the upper and the lower respiratory system such as laryngitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cough, hoarseness, postnasal drip disease-sinusitis, otitis media, recurrent pneumonia and laryngeal cancer. Non-cardiac chest pain is commonly grouped among the esophageal syndromes by the Montreal Classification. but is not one of the common symptoms of typical gastroesophageal reflux (GER) which are heartburn and regurgitation . The diagnosis and recommendations on initial empiric therapy for patients with suspected reflux related non-cardiac chest pain is similar to those of extraesophageal reflux which is why it is included in this chapter. GER contributes to extraesophageal syndromes by two mechanisms: direct (aspiration) or indirect (vagally-mediated) mechanisms .

Reflux of gastroduodenal contents into the esophagus and hypophayrnx may be classified as either “high” or “distal” . The pathogenesis of “high” esophageal reflux involves reflux that traverses the esophagus and induces cough either by direct pharyngeal or laryngeal stimulation or aspiration and causes a tracheal or bronchial cough response. In “distal” esophageal reflux, cough can be produced by a vagally-mediated trachealbronchial reflex . Embryologic studies show that esophagus and bronchial tree share a common embryologic origin and neural innervation via the vagus nerve. Pressure gradient changes between the abdominal and thoracic cavities during the act of coughing, may lead to a cycle of cough and reflux . A disturbance in any of the normal protective mechanisms such as disruption of the mechanical barrier for reflux (lower esophageal sphincter) or esophageal dysmotility may allow direct contact of noxious gastroduodenal contents with the larynx or the airway . In this article we will discuss the latest knowledge of the association between extraesophageal manifestations of GER such as chronic cough, laryngitis and asthma as well as non-cardiac chest pain of esophageal origin.We will discuss the current recommendations on diagnosis and treatment options for this difficult group of patients  (Burton DM,  et al ,2010)